Many laws criminalising HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission were put in place due to ignorance about how HIV is transmitted and what sort of harm it causes. Fear of HIV and discrimination against people living with HIV are almost palpable in many of these laws and in the sentences that result from prosecution. This document scans the current situation, the good developments and the bad; details the many initiatives by independent experts, governments, the United Nations and civil society; describes the latest research and its findings in terms of prosecutions and convictions and the social impact of these on the HIV response and people’s behaviour. Most importantly, it powerfully demonstrates that civil society advocacy on this issue is not only alive – it goes from strength to strength.
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